The history of Betar, just like the genealogy
of a family, a legacy unto itself. The men
and women whose unabashed Jewish pride and
unwavering devotion to that one ideal, a
free Jewish people in a free Jewish state,
put Betar in the forefront of the creation
of the state of Israel.
The history that follows seeks to familiarize
you with such people as our great mentor,
Ze'ev Jabotinsky. His faith in Jewish youth
gave way to the birth of Betar.You will
read about When Shlomo Ben-Yosef, to whom
concept of Hadar is closely associated.
The young Polish born Betari who met his
tragic end an the British Gallows. His only
crime was defending Jewish rights and honor.
You will read about Dov
Gruner, Avraham Stavsky, Aaron Propes, and
countless other young Betarim whose heroic
actions paved the way for Jewish Statehood.
You will read of such
historic events as the first, second, and
third World Betar conventions and the pervasive
expansion of Betar throughout Europe.
You will read of unprecedented
achievements such as the Betar Naval and
Aviation schools, of Hachshara camps to
train Betarim for pioneer duty in Palestine,
of the Plugat Hakotel - The Platoon of the
Wall, of the Aliyah Bet - the mass immigration
to of Jews to the nearly established State
of Israel, and of partisan warfare - all
of which are integral components in the
rich and glorious history of the movement
which we are so proud to belong. All the
fore mentioned heroes and heroines have
been, are, and will be in the hearts and
minds of Betarim today and for generations
Of Betar By Aaron Z Propes - The First Betari
The first evening, Riga,
November 1923. a cold autumn night. The
leaders of the Zionist Organization in little
Latvia are still discussing the advisability
of greeting Jabotinsky officially. After
all, he had just resigned from the Zionist
Organization and was now the opposition.
They have sufficient time for discussion,
for the first announcement had declared
the hour of his arrival to be midnight and
now we learn that we may expect him at five
o'clock in the morning.
And we, several young
fellows, we wait too. This is not simply
because we are eager. After all, Riga was
honored very often by visits of prominent
Zionist personalities and until that night,
none of us would have dreamt of sitting
up and waiting an entire night fir a guest.
This time, however, we do wait as though
we had foreboding.
Sitting upon a long table
in the corridor of the office of the Zionist
Organization, we tell each other all we
know of him. It soon becomes obvious that
we actually know very little: Legion (the
first jewish fighting force in 2000 years),
Jewish self-defense in Palestine, 15 years
imprisonment in Akko, and that is all. And
with that, our entire story, as we narrate
it, assumes the following pattern:
The English government
approached Jabotinsky with the request that
he create a Jewish legion. This Jabotinsky
did; put himself at its head and then, after
a series of battles, liberated Eretz Israel
from the Turks. Just so, simple, naive -
Or: The Arab riots against
Jews break out. At night Jabotinsky opens
the ammunition supplies, distributes arms
to the Jews and delivers Jerusalem from
the Arabs. For this he is arrested and sentenced
yo 15 years penal servitude.
We were very vague as
to just how he was freed from prison. One
claimed that Jabotinsky escaped from there
with the aid of his legionnaires. Another
maintained that Palestine Jewry make a pilgrimage
to Akko in whose dungeons Jabotinsky sat
and declared they would not leave the city
until their hero was turned loose, a free
man. Of course, other explanations, products
of young phantasy were not lacking. Finally,
in the early morning hours, the Zionists
decide to greet Jabotinsky, but not officially.
All of us go to the station, all of us -
barely a minyan.
It is cold and drizzling.
The city sleeps well, snugly, complacently.
The Jews, the Jewish youth sleep too. We
stand upon the platform of the station.
In several minutes the train comes in and
with it our guest. His greeting, "Shalom!"
comes shouting out of the window at us,
and in a few minutes he marches out of the
carriage with firm, steady, youthful steps.
We look upon him for the first time. An
obscure feeling overwhelms us, an internal
restlessness grips us, and a question is
left hanging in the air, "Is this all?"
In our phantasy, we picture
that any moment now several thousand Jewish
Legionnaires, proud and fortunate because
of the mission which they fulfilled, would
pop out of the carriage after him and carry
us away.And then again, perhaps he did not
step out of the carriage, but really out
of the goal. By goal we meant not only Akko,
but that miserable dungeon called the Galut.
Has he come to redeem us?
Youth knows how to dream
beautifully. Several hours later the dream
became the beginning of a new reality. He
called and spoke to us. And we? That early
morning, we yielded our souls to him: hopes,
beliefs, everything a youth possesses. And
thus ended the most beautiful night of our
generation. And we faced that G-d blessed
dawn, the dawn that saw the creation of
* * * * *
Since that night and early
morning, how many happy nights were spent
with him. These cannot be spoken of, cannot
be written down. Months, many months, often
years of bitter battles, of tremendous obstacles,
persecutions, and calumny passed until we
saw him again. At the first few meetings,
all this would be forgotten, disappear into
obscurity, be erased from our memory. No,
even before the meeting, at the announcement
that he was coming, all this vanished.
Seeing the Rosh Betar,
hearing him, sensing him in our presence,
feeling his eyes glancing at you, the smile
upon his lips, even when you were one among
the hundreds, all this can be understood
only by him who has lived through these
A year consists of days
and nights, our lives of a definite number
of years, as many as fate destines us to
have. In our generation all the days and
nights have been combined into one heavy
mass, gloomy, bitter, bloody, just like
our Jewish lives for the past 20 years.
But for those who were fortunate enough
to know him, those lovely evening and nights,
the minutes and even seconds spent with
him were able to swim away and separate
from the mass. No matter how difficult the
future will prove to be, no matter what
obstacles lie on our road to freedom, those
moments with him are sufficient to carry
us along through the raging storm.
Those evenings and nights...
How many were there? How
could we count them? Can happiness be counted?
Happiness can appear but once, and yet demonstrate
its ability to fill an entire lifetime.
When? When you need him
most, when your heart pines and yearns for
Where? In every spot where
Jewish distress wept and moaned, where the
agonies of the Galut were mightiest, where
the hopes of being drained and had almost
vanished. In the very midst of that distress
and hope stood his youth. Hence it was there
that he was an often guest, beloved, anxiously-awaited,
worshipped. And thus he remained.
Those evening and nights,
when he would come to us, live with us,
the face of the entire world differed, and
primarily, we ourselves altered too. He
brought such wealth into our poverty, the
poverty of Jewish life. In all aspects,
he differed from those about him. He made
no attempt to understand us, but worried
that we understand him. We would watch his
every move, word, and smile. We memorized
his statements and addresses, repeating
them a thousand times.
When he was satisfied,
we were serenely happy. Thirstily we dragged
ourselves toward him. He sensed this, and
gave us so much, more and more of his thoughts,
feelings, and love, especially in recent
In those evenings he would
rest among us, his youth, his children.
And since words always failed us when he
was near, we expresses our innermost in
song, his songs. He often requested that
we repeat one. In his presence it was all
too easy to sing.
His head bent slightly,
leaning upon his fists, He would sit in
thought and listen, listen to us sing, with
the words of such song, his song. An evening
and a night of one of his children, one
of us, Shlomo Ben Yosef, ended - ended with
the words of a song and the name of its
composer, the composer not only of a song,
but of Jewry's most beautiful symphony -
Search For Youth.
In one of those evenings,
he wanted to persuade us that sought an
entire lifetime for a youth which he hoped
Betar would bring, a youth that believed
in one G-d, and knighthood, a youth prepared
to battle and sacrifice its life for those
ideals which it considers sacred. A youth
proud of its Jewishness, satisfied and happy
that it carries on its shoulders the great
humanitarian battle for freedom.
However, we knew and felt
that generations of young Jews had waited
for someone like him to appear, teach and
Many, a great many, blundered
in their search, some inscribed their names
in our history as sacred martyrs instead
of perishing like heros. And the largest
part aged and disappeared without having
lived as youth... without leaving behind
Those evenings and nights...
We thought it would always
be thus. Had not G-d performed one of his
rare wonders and sent him to us. Why not
this miracle too? We accepted this as an
exceptional, great gift from the almighty.
Thus we believed.
We thought, can a well
become dry? Can a song end? Intoxicated
with love, we drank from that well and demanded
more. Happily did we listen to his song
and believed that it would never be silence,
that its ring would never be dumb, that
its tenor never be torn away.
* * * * *
That evening, that night.
For weeks we had been
awaiting him. On his last visit, he had
promised to return to camp soon. He kept
his word, as always.
The Betarim stood in a
long line turned toward the direction from
which he was to appear. According to our
calculations, the auto should have been
in the camp. Evidently we were mistaken,
but that evening, we were not alone, for
the Master of the Universe also erred.
It gets darker. We postpone
the evening Misdar until he arrives. The
flags are still waving high even though
the sun had practically set and they wave
in anticipation of greeting our guest.
It gets still darker.
Autos pass our road with their lights on.
Finally, he has arrived. The order "Dom"
echoes and re-echoes over the hill tops.
The Betarim are ready to receive their Rosh
Betar. Their hearts beat quicker and quicker.
He passes the line slowly,
peers into the face of every Betari as if
he wanted to remember every one, or as though
he sought someone amongst them.
It is very dark. We illuminate
the ranks with flash lights, so the Rosh
Betar may see his children better. The misdar
is over. With slow steps he walks up the
single flight to his room. He does not feel
well but says nothing about it.
The Betarim stand in formation
in the field, prepared for the evening Misdar.
Their prayers said, they lower the flags.
The Rosh Betar sits in his room sunk in
a deep chair, suffering from severe pains.
The heart attack has developed, but he still
does not want to upset anyone.
The flags have been lowered,
the young Betarim are in their bunks, the
older ones wait for the Rosh Betar to come
down. And the sun, not wanting to witness
that which will soon occur, had previously
hidden behind the mountains.
Two doctors at his bedside.
Of his nearest associates, some around him,
others are in the neighboring room. Downstairs
the older Betarim stand frozen with fear."Leave
me alone for five minutes, I want to rest,"
We did not hear more.
Then began the injections, artificial respiration,
and prayers - silent prayers from all of
us to the almighty. Such pure prayers as
these from the depths of our souls, the
almighty has never heard before.
The night swallowed the
* * * * *
Candles at his head. An
honor guard of Betarim. Someone is reciting
Psalms. Something horrible has happened.
We do not understand what, we cannot realize
it yet. This night, too, we shall not forget.
What differentiated that
night from other nights? Perhaps that night
was the holiest. That night he met eternity
and became himself a part of eternity.
My Rosh Betar...
This night passed. The
morning Misdar. Last evening the final Misdar
with him, today the last for him.
Why do our hearts hurt
so? Did it have to happen so quickly, so
Tel 'Hai, Rosh Betar.
Only one who has warmed
himself in the happiness and fortune of
those evenings and nights spent with him
can understand our pain and agony in the
first night without him.
Those evenings and nights...
We thought it would be
thus always. And today we know that we were
not mistaken. His song will ring eternally,
his name will call eternally.
My Rosh Betar.
Birth Of Betar
was two years after the massacres of 1921,
one year after the first partition of Eretz
Israel, and just three years after the death
of trumpeldor at Tel Hai - the winter of
1923. Ze'ev Vladimir Evonovitch Jabotinsky,
in the course of a lecture tour of Eastern
Europe, visited Riga, Latvia. The founder
of the Jewish Self Defense Corps in Czarist
Russia, the organizer of the Jewish Legion
in World War I, and the first Jewish Prisoner
of Akko, urged the adoption by the Zionists
of an activist program. He called for mass
immigration to Eretz Israel and to the Jewish
youth to "learn to shoot."
Shortly after Jabotinsky
left Riga, several Jewish students who were
inspired by his talks organized themselves
into the "Association of Trumpeldor."
They dedicated themselves to the formation
of a new Jewish Legion which would conquer
all of Eretz Israel. A local youth name
Aaron Propes was elected President of the
organization. An idea, a principal that
was destined to take the mind of Jewry by
storm, and fire the imagination of Jewish
youth as nothing had ever fired it before
gave birth to Betar. The principal was very
simple, yet revolutionary: The subordination
of everything to the realization of the
Zionist ideal - a Jewish State within its
While Betar proceeded
to extend its influence throughout Latvia,
Jabotinsky went to paris, where, in 1924,
he established the World Union of Zionist
Revisionists as an opposition party to the
World Zionist movement. Meanwhile, back
in Riga, at the third territorial conference
of the Association of Trumpeldor, the delegates
decided to propose to the Revisionist party
that they announce the formation of a world
youth movement called B'rith Trumpeldor.
The idea was to make B'rith Trumpeldor the
official Revisionist youth organization.
Earlier that year, The second Revisionist
world conference in Paris heard Aaron Propes
present the Betar resolution. It was accepted
In the following three
years, Betar took root in Austria, Poland,
Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Lithuania,
Germany, France, and Eretz Israel. The central
committee of B'rith Trumpeldor in Latvia
served as headquarters of World B'rith Trumpeldor.
The Defense of Jerusalem
Long before that fateful
August of 1929, every sign had been pointing
to trouble. Sir John Chancellor had been
appointed High Commissioner of Palestine.
He did not like the Jews, and made up his
mind that his rule should bring the British
Mandate to establish a Jewish homeland in
Palestine a step nearer destruction.
Chancellor built up and
cautiously and spread the inflammable rumor
that the Jews were planning to tear down
the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem and rebuild
Solomon's Temple on its site. His officials
persuaded the Arabs to claim ownership of
the Wailing Wall - over which Jewish rights
had been undisputed for centuries.
The Arabs had their approval
from the Palestine Administration and began
to systematically persecute the Jewish worshipers
at the wall. Stones were thrown at them.
The pavement in front of the wall was deliberately
covered with droppings from the Arabs' donkeys
during the Shabbat services. Dervishes opened
up business in the garden next door and
made a point of reserving their dances,
ear-splitting shrieking and drumming for
the hours of Jewish worship.
Finally, the sacrilegious
British administration built a road through
the wailing wall itself to provide the Arabs
with a shortcut to the Mosque of Omar. Insolent
Arabs now drove their donkeys in a never
ending stream through the holy place that
has been sacred to Jewish worshipers from
time immemorial. On Yom Kippur, the Day
of Atonement, religious Jews placed a portable
screen at the wall to protect themselves
from interference during the services. As
soon as the Governor of Jerusalem heard
of this, he sent an officer to remove the
screen immediately. The worshipers were
reciting N'ilah, the closing service, when
the officer arrived. Acting the complete
English gentleman, he broke violently into
the midst of the service and took the screen
away. The high commissioner conveniently
left on a visit to London.
The British authorities
disarmed the Jewish settlers completely
even though they knew that the Arabs had
fixed August 23, 1929 as Der Tag. With unbelievable
savagery, the police broke up a procession
of Jewish mourners who were carrying a coffin
of a seventeen year old boy stabbed to death
by rioters. The Arabs took their cue. From
every corner of Palestine, Arabs swarmed
into Jerusalem armed with guns, knives,
and clubs - the old war cry was on their
lips: El Daula Manna... The Government is
The administration and
the police did nothing. Martial law was
not proclaimed. The pogromists were not
disarmed. Jews were murdered under the eyes
of the British Officials who were watching
from the balcony of the Government House.
The Acting High Commissioner cold bloodily
informed the Zionist deputation that went
to beg for help that he had been "given
orders not to shoot."
At that point, Betar took
over. Betar uncovered its long concealed
stores of arms and clubs and went out to
defend Jerusalem. A group of visiting Oxford
students did their best to redeem the good
name of England by ranging themselves at
Within twenty-four hours,
peace returned to the Holy City. The Arabs
fled in confusion, and focussed their attention
to the disarmed colonies far outside Jerusalem.
The Palestine Administration of course avenged
their defeat by charging the defenders of
Jerusalem with illegal possession of arms
and the "murder" of Arabs.
But the plot to convert
Jerusalem into a mass graveyard for Jews
had been frustrated. Betar had stamped out
the long prepared massacre in the enemy's
blood, and had saved the honor of the Yishuv
in the "Baptism of Fire."
Since that date in 1929,
and until 1946, when the Irgun took over
the responsibility, Betar's Plugat HaKotel,
the Platoon of the Wall, defended the Wailing
Wall and made it safe for Jews to worship
at the remains of our ancient Holy Temple.
Because of Betar's brave
and noble task, the State of Israel gave
the building that housed the Betarim who
defended the worshipers to Betar. Today,
Bet Plugat Hakotel is the Betar house in
the Old City of Jerusalem - a living testimony
the vital role Betar played in the establishment
of the State of Israel.
By By Ephraim Ben Israel
Jabotinsky and Joseph Trumpeldor each knew
the others heroical deeds before they met
and formed the Jewish Legion. Trumpeldor
was born in the Caucasus in the year 1880.
Despite his not being allowed to attend
a university because he was Jewish, Trumpeldor
managed to become a dentist. He then served
in the Czarist army during the Russo-Japanese
war of 1905.
was sent to Port Arthur, and there he lived
through eleven terrible months of siege.
In a fierce battle, he lost his left arm,
Almost to the shoulder, but kept fighting
while injured and in pain. No sooner had
he come out of the hospital than he demanded
to be sent back to the front, He knew he
had a mission to accomplish, and insisted
showing the Russian generals that Jews are
strong and do not give up. Everyone in the
Russian army knew of Trumpeldor's bravery.
He was an inspiration to all those around
After the fall of Port
Arthur, Trumpeldor was taken prisoner by
the Japanese forces, together with the rest
of General Stoessel's army. He spent many
months in a prisoner of war camp with deplorable
conditions, but kept his spirits up because
he came to the realization of the most important
thing he had to do - transform the Jewish
people from oppression to a strong nation.
He then, while In captivity, organized Zionist
societies and collected money for the Jewish
After the war he was granted
a reserve officers rank, and until 1917
he was, with the rank of Captain, the only
Jewish officer in the Russian Army. He then
entered the University of St, Petersburg,
completed his law studies, and immediately
left for Eretz Israel. There he worked in
Degania and other settlements, not as an
attorney as he was trained, but rather doing
any job that had to be done. All the other
settlers agreed that with his one arm he
was yet the strongest and the best of the
Later he worked with Jabotinsky
to form the Zion Mule Corps of the British
Army. Formed in April, 1915, this was the
first Jewish army in nearly two thousand
years. The Zion Mule Corps was led by Lieutenant
Commander John Henry Patterson until he
could no longer serve. At that point, Trumpeldor
became the officer in charge. This made
him the first Jew to command a Jewish army
in two thousand years. Later this group
evolved into The Jewish Legion.
Five years later, at Tel-'Hai,
Trumpeldor was immortalized with the words
'ein davar', never mind.
Jabotinsky and Trumpeldor
disagreed on the importance of the northern
region. Jabotinsky felt it was impossible
to defend the north. Trumpeldor, on the
other hand, felt it was vital and took the
mission upon himself.
As the leader of a group
of fifty legionnaires, he defended the fortress
of Tel-'Hai in northern Eretz Israel against
an attack by 5000 Arabs. Being the northern
most as well as virtually inaccessible outpost,
it was almost impossible to defend, and
Trumpeldor knew it. He felt strongly that
someone had to defend the northern boundary.
He took the challenge himself because he
knew it had to be done.
During the battle to defend
northern Eretz Israel from Arab takeover,
the fortress fell into siege. Without any
sign of reinforcements on the way, the residents
of the fortress protected themselves with
the limited supplies they had left.
They were surrounded.
There was no way to call for help. They
were isolated from the rest of the yishuv.
They were alone in their battle. One night,
Trumpeldor found a way to get one person
past the surrounding enclave, and was able
to send for help. The reinforcements were
on the way, but did not arrive in time on
that fateful day.
Fighting with only one
arm, he was known as the strongest fighter
in the fort. Wounded, he remained in battle.
But even that was not enough. The settlers
realized Tel-'Hai was about to fall. Instead
of allowing the fortress to be captured
by the attacking Arabs, they burned what
they could. Only the stones remained. Trumpeldor
was taken to a hospital. Then his last words
were spoken. 'Tov le'mut Be'artzanu' it
is good to die for ones country.
Trumpeldor is regarded
as a hero of Israel by all. His vision and
fortitude secured Israel's northern section.
Trumpeldor influenced Jabotinsky with his
strong belief in providing to the Jewish
people a new idea. Trumpeldor stressed what
was needed of jews, rather than what a Jew
wanted for himself. "If you need a
hammer, I will be a hammer, if you need
a nail, I will be the nail" he would
say. Jabotinsky realized Trumpeldor was
right, and in his honor, Jabotinsky named
Betar - B'rith Yosef Trumpeldor.
At the first Kinus, or
governing convention, an exceptional hush
fell over the conference hall as Jabotinsky
walked to the platform. A sea of eager eyes
turned up toward him. This was the moment
they had all been waiting for - those scores
of earnest young men and women who had traveled
to Danzig, many of them came from hundreds
and even thousands of miles away. Everyone
was impressed to see the Betar groups from
three continents welded into a powerful
instrument for Jewish national liberation.
It had been strange at
first in that unfamiliar Baltic city. The
delegates from one country did not know
their colleagues from the next, and the
fact that they all belonged to an organization
which was loosely call B'rith Trumpeldor
seemed to help little in overcoming their
sense of isolation. Each delegation wore
its own taste of uniforms. The profusion
of shades, cuts, and insignia of rank made
this look like a convention not of a single
movement, but of a whole galaxy of movements.
But soon they found how
easily people speaking in the same ideological
language can get to understand each other,
and how magnetically an ideal shared in
common can draw the most divergent spirits
together. Complete strangers were thrown
into a melting pot of committees and secretariats,
and emerged as life long friends, bound
by ties infinitely stronger than self-interest
or class solidarity.
But now Jabotinsky was
speaking. He minced no words. Like a stern
father reproving his wayward family, he
told the assembled Betarim exactly what
he thought of them for not practicing what
they preached. He told them that every stage
of the recognized Betar training had to
be undergone thoroughly, whether or not
the material and the instructors were available.
There was simply no excuse, he said, for
neglecting our education for statehood,
because ways and means could be found to
overcome every difficulty. "If you
haven't hand-grenades and targets you can
still learn to throw stones of a fixed weight
at a point a fixed distance away."
Then Jabotinsky laid down
the four principals by which Betar must
stand or fall. The principals that were
to take the mind of European Jewry by storm,
and fire the imagination of Jewish youth
as nothing had ever fired it before.
MONISM - The devotion
to a single ideal of a Jewish state on both
sides of the Jordan river.
HADAR - The abandonment
of the slovenly habits adopted in the ghetto,
and the adoption of ways of living that
would mark the Jew out as the aristocracy
among nations, with the Betari as the aristocrat
LEGYON - Military training
for the defense of Jewish life and honor.
GIYUS - National service
in the homeland without thought of personal
ended with the demand that each member of
Betar learn Hebrew. "At our next Kinus,"
he warned them, "only one language
will be spoken. That will be Hebrew."
The delegates unanimously
elected Jabotinsky as Rosh Betar, decided
to establish the movements headquarters
in Paris. They left Danzig as inspired missionaries
of the faith that was to save 100,000 of
Europe's despairing Jewish youth from the
worship of false idols.
On friday, June 16, 1933,
Chaim Arlosoroff, the Histadruth leader,
was assassinated while scrolling on the
beach of Tel Aviv with his wife. Leading
personalties declared that the dying Arlosoroff
said his assailants were not Jews. The socialist
press, however, immediately exploited the
occasion by charging the Revisionists with
Captain Harry Rice, Deputy
Inspector-General of the Palestine Police
and intimate friend of Mrs. Arlosoroff,
arrested a Betari named Stavsky, who was
promptly identified by Mrs. Arlosoroff as
one of the murderers. The three other Betarim
- Zvi Rosenblatt, Yehuda Mintz, and Abba
Achimeir were taken into custody. Mrs. Arlosoroff,
with equal promptness identified them as
During Achimeir's trial,
collusion between the police and the witness
was proved. The evidence was shown to have
been deliberately falsified and his release
was ordered by the embarrassed Government.
At Mintz's trial, Mrs.
Arlosoroff was caught in a whirl of self-contradiction.
Mrs. Arlosoroff was accused by the court
of lying and Mintz was freed.
During Rosenblatt's trial,
it was established that he, whom Mrs. Arlosoroff
has branded as the actual killer, had been
addressing a mass meeting in a different
city at the time of the murder. The court
On June 10th, 1934 the
government condemned to death the last available
victim, Abraham Stavsky. The idiocy of the
verdict was at once evident from the fact
that Mrs. Arlosoroff had charged Rosenblatt
with the killing and Stavsky with holding
the torch for him. It was not possible,
therefore, for one to be guilty without
the other, yet Rosenblatt had been cleared
and Stavsky sentenced to hang.
The chief Rabbi of Palestine,
Hacohen Kook declared his belief in Stavsky's
innocence. His cable to world Jewry said
"Strive with all your might for the
triumph of justice." Jabotinsky, Jacob
De Hass, Col. Wedgewoood, and Horace Samuel
rallied to Stavsky's defence.
The case was brought before
the Palestine Court of Appeal and Stavsky
was set free. The Mizrachi issued declarations
of satisfaction. The Zionist Organization
of America greeted the acquittal.
On the other hand, Hashomer
Hatzair, the extremely anti-religious and
socialist youth organization, was so incensed
at the development that they stoned the
synagogue in which Stavsky was praying and
carried posters condemning Rabbi Kook -
"Pity the nation whose priests protect
After the Stavsky case,
the Jewish Agency, controlled by the Mapai,
intensified the bitterness by depriving
Betar of certificates to enter Palestine,
thus hindering Betarim from obtaining employment.
The Jewish Agency also collaborated with
police in deporting Betarim who had arrived
in the country without visas, even though
many of their own members had arrived the
same way. The Mapai acted as if Eretz Israel
was not the property of the Jewish Nation,
but of a special class.
The Histadruth contemptuously
rejected the Jabotinsky-Ben Gurion pact
which had endeavored to restore peace to
the tortured Yishuv. The Stavsky scandal
and its repercussions eventually led to
the establishment of the New Zionist Organization.
The second World Kinus
was help in Cracow in 1935. Never before
had the old Polish city witnessed such scenes.
The townsmen gaped in bewilderment at the
thousands upon thousands of excited young
Jews who thronged the streets leading to
the conference hall. They came from every
corner of Europe. It was four years since
the first Kinus in Danzig. There had been
fewer of them then.
In danzig, they were a
self conscious, ill-sorted crowd, making
conversation awkwardly in all the languages
and jargons of the Galut. No two countries
uniforms were the same. But in Cracow it
was possible to see how those four years
had welded Jabotinsky's disciples into one
movement that extended across Europe.
The B'rith Trumpeldor
had been tested in an ordeal greater than
any ordeal of hate, slander, starvation,
ostracism, physical violence, and blood
libel combined. It had survived the ordeal,
and from the shadow of strength had emerged
with an intensity of purpose and inner strength
never equaled in Jewish history since the
times of Bar Kochba's legions.
The Betarim marched through
the resounding streets of Cracow. Thousands
of them dressed in the same uniform, wearing
the same insignia to determine their ranks,
Walking tall, looking proud, and this time
speaking one language - Hebrew.
No longer was there any
outward differences between them, no longer
could one tell which country a Betari came
from by the uniform he wore or the language
he spoke. They were now an army of brothers
united in suffering and martyrdom, facing
a hostile world with a defiant "Tel
Hai" on their lips. On their shoulders
they carried in Abraham Stavsky, now a free
man, who had come to Cracow to gather with
Rosenblatt as a delegate of the Palestine
Jabotinsky spoke to them
in a packed hall. Thousands clamored for
entrance at the door, unable to find as
much as a foothold within. The Rosh Betar
wore the uniform of Betar, just like the
one they are were wearing. But when they
saw him in it for the first time, his young
disciples burst into a storm of delirious
enthusiasm. Jabotinsky had aged somewhat
since those days at Danzig. He had suffered
with his Betarim, and now he looked down
at them with a stern tenderness in which
there was more than a hint of awe.
What makes them stay with
me? He wondered. L-rd, haven't I given them
enough pain, heartbreak, and suffering for
them never to want to see me again and to
take another road that offers more peace,
more prosperity, more security? But here
they still are - more than ever before...
He put his thoughts into words. "Who
can understand this phenomenon called Betar?
There you are stronger, more resolute, even
more happy after going through immeasurable
suffering. They promise you everything -
certificates for Palestine, money for your
settlements, praise without limit. We promise
you only pain and hardship.
"The road that leads
into Betar is very small and narrow, but
the door for those who want to leave Betar
is big and always wide open. Yet thousands
and still more pour in through the small
door, while only a few slink rather shamefully
out the big one."
He turned his head and
looked straight at Stavsky and Rosenblatt:
"You will have to suffer far more than
you have, The bodies of men like you will
have to pave the way by which our people
will cross into their liberated homeland."
The delegates were more
excited now than ever. Here, standing before
them, and just for them, the Rosh Betar
spoke. Now their mission was clearer than
Two hundred and sixteen
official delegates were present at the second
World Kinus, representing more than 60,000
organized members. The number of Maozim
by this time numbered 689.
A burning necessity demonstrated
by the second Kinus was a greater Aliyah
Bet - Aliyah in the face of British opposition
and in spite of Jewish Agency interference.
In 1935, Rosh Betar and
the Revisionist movement came to the conclusion
that there was no hope of changing the policy
of the Jewish Agency. They were convinced
that Jewish patriots should themselves take
the offensive without waiting for the meek
and the timid. About three-quarters of a
million Jewish votes gave Rosh Betar the
mandate. He travelled to Vienna, where,
On September 8, 1935, he proclaimed the
fundamental principals of the New Zionist
our long history in the diaspora, others
shaped destiny for us as we, the Jewish
people, produced many martyrs. The moment
we took our future in our own hands the
names of martyrs gave way to the names of
heros. These heroes were simple men and
women, but their names mark the beginning
of a new era in our history.
Shlomo Ben Yosef in an
example of such a hero for generations to
come. His name became a symbol for the Jewish
struggle for liberation and freedom. Yet
he did not die on a battlefield, but on
the gallows of Palestine - the first Jew
to receive the death sentence in Eretz Israel
for nearly two thousand years.
He was Born Shalom Tabachnik
in the Polish town of Lutzk in 1913. From
his father he inherited his modesty, his
quietness, his stubborn will, and his strong
character. As a son of a very poor family,
the conditions of his childhood were difficult,
but these difficulties helped strengthen
his character. Even as a child he kept himself
back from the general jokes of his friends
at the cheder - the Jewish religious school.
He was always quiet, dreaming, and reserved.
His study days were over
soon after his Bar-Mitzvah. He now had to
help support his poor family and worry about
his future. A period of hard and bitter
work to earn a living set in as he took
positions as a clerk, a waiter, as well
as many others to support his family.
He joined Betar Qen of
Lutzk in 1928 and from that moment his life
took on new meaning. In Betar he learned
how to love his homeland, Eretz Israel.
There he also learned to dream of a new
life for himself and his people. He was
taught that he was not a "Zhid",
"a poor dirty Jew" - the epitaph
that had been flung at Jewish youth by the
gentiles till they no longer questioned
or even resented it.
While working he learned
more about the world around him. He saw
how he, his parents, and all the other Jews
around him were called Zhids. He saw the
torment in the eyes for fellow Jews. He
saw how the Poles made pogroms on them.
But most of all, he saw something better
in his heart.
That young heart burned
with protest as his young fists were clenched
in sorrow. He entered Betar through an instinctive
feeling and the movement enriched his life.
Here he felt a new spirit.
He studied the history of the Jewish nation.
He heard about the Jewish heroes of the
past. He found out that Jews were not always
enslaved, insulted, and oppressed. He was
taught that he was not a weakling who had
to be afraid of all around him. He learned
that he was the son of kings, the descendant
of prophets, and a brother of the Macabees.
He yearned to go to Palestine where there
would be no more Zhids, but a free nation
in a free "Kingdom of Israel."
And here, in Qen Lutzk, he learned his first
Betar song - The song which he sang ten
years later with so much courage on the
gallows of Akko.
When his father died in
1930, the seventeen year old boy took it
upon himself to support his whole family.
Yet he never missed an evening in the Qen,
and he became one of the most active of
When the Polish Government
gave permission for a military Hachshara,
he was he first on the drill field to study
the "Torah of the gun." He was
always the first one, whether for a hike
or a meeting. The broad-shouldered youth
could be seen everywhere, a fiery glance
in his eyes - always the first one.
Everyone in the Qen knew
him - from the youngest Nesher, lion, to
the oldest Mifaked, officer, and he in turn
knew everyone. When anything had to be done,
from the smallest thing like lighting of
the stove in the Moadon, the meeting place,
or distributing of pamphlets from town to
town, he could be relied on to volunteer
In 1931, a Betar Hachshara
was founded in the town of Kazhitz. Shalom
Tabachnik left home, despite the difficulties
which faced his family, and arrived at Hachshara.
He completed his Hachshara and returned
to Lutzk in 1932, where he then completed
his term of Hachshara Haganatit, military
hachshara, and took charge of the Mazkirut
HaQen. He also organized a Plugat Aliyah,
an Aliyah platoon, which prepared to go
At that time, no certificates
were available for Betarim to go to Palestine.
Despite that obstacle, he joined a group
of "illegal immigrants" and without
a penny in his pockets left for Eretz Israel
in August 1937. After smuggling himself
across borders and as an "illegal"
immigrant aboard a ship that landed in Beirut,
Lebanon, he climbed aboard a Greek fishing
boat heading south. When he asked to be
taken further, they demanded money from
him. Having none, they began to quarrel
and he was cast overboard. He swam the stretch
of water and finally, after crossing the
Galilee hills, arrived at Naharia, thus
fulfilling his life-long dream to be in
Eretz Israel, and the Betar group of Rosh
The many months he spent
on the way, and the hardships which he and
many others endured has formed an undying
part of Jewish Legend.
After he arrived safely
in Eretz Israel, he immediately reported
to the Plugat Ha-Giyus, the service platoon
for Eretz Israel, at the settlement of Rosh
Pina. Here he began cultivating the fields
of the Galil.
He arrived in the midst
of bad times in palestine. For two years,
the Arabs had been rioting and terrorizing
the Jewish population. Women and children
were killed, settlements were raided, fields
were burned and Jews were attacked at will.
In the face of all this, Jewish youth remained
But that did not deter
Shlomo Ben Yosef, the Hebrew name Shalom
Tabachnik adopted and was known by in Eretz
Israel. He worked hard in the fields to
help support the Maon. When the pogroms
got bad, he went to the port of Haifa were
he worked to send money back to Rosh Pina.
It was dangerous to work in the open fields
and he wanted to guarantee his fellow Betarim
would not go hungry. When one days work
in the Galilee would feed one person, His
single days labor in the ports would feed
twelve. Thus he supported his fellow Betarim,
and with the extra money he earned, he purchased
weapons to protect them with.
The Jewish leaders had
proclaimed the policy of Havlaga, self restraint.
This was a policy the British Government
not only favored, but encouraged. The British
did not want to have a Jewish majority in
Palestine, else they may loose control of
the land. The Arabs could therefore attack
whenever they wished, but the "Jews
had to prove that their intentions were
The Palestine Police and
Government were "unable" to find
the Arab terrorists who would shoot Jews,
such as Leiberman, the young Betari from
Rosh Pina who was murdered while working
in the fields. At the same time, Jews could
not venture from one city to another, they
were hostages in their own homeland.
To Shlomo Ben Yosef the
way was clear. If the Government would not
police this country, the Jews would protect
On April 21, 1938, news
was received that a contingent of Arab terrorists
was on its way to attack Rosh Pina, but
the report didn't say when. Preparations
were being made in the near by Arab village
of Djani. Open preparations in the Arab
Village proved more and more evident of
an imminent attack. Although the were exhausted
from working the fields for sixteen hour
a day and then spent six hour a night on
guard duty for months at a time, they knew
they had to do something. They could not
just sit back while fellow Jews were about
to be murdered.
In desperation, three
of the youngest Betarim at Rosh Pina, Abraham
Shein, Sholom Djuravin, and Shlomo Ben Yosef
went out on the Taberias road. Perhaps they
may get there before the time of the attack.
Perhaps they might intercept the Arab terrorists
in time. Perhaps they might frighten them
A car approaches. It was
an car filled with Arabs who did not live
in the neighborhood. The three young men
stepped out into view to stop the car headed
for Rosh Pina.
These, thought the youngsters,
must be the terrorists. They fired a single
shot in the air. The Arabs gained speed
and within a few seconds vanished from sight.
Shein, Djuravin, and Ben Yosef then waited
until the a Jewish bus had safely passed,
and with elated feelings that they had prevented
a tragedy, returned to the Betar Maon in
Rosh Pina. This time the police were not
long in arriving.
The first was a Jewish
policeman who suggested that Ben Yosef throw
away his weapon. He refused to do this and
within a few minutes, Shein, Djuravin, and
Ben Yosef were led away in chains to Akko
prison. They were proud of their actions.
They did not resist.
The trial opened May 24,
1938. On a very late Friday afternoon, June
3rd, with a face as pale a ghosts, the President
of the Haifa Military Court pronounced the
verdict. Shalom Djuravin was to be placed
under medical observation, Abraham Shein
and Shlomo Ben Yosef were to hang by the
neck until they were dead.
The tense electric silence
of the court room was broken by a dreadful
shriek from Shein's sister. She understood
no English, and for ten days she had been
listening - a pitiful, hopeless, bewildered
creature - to the evidence that would decide
whether her little eighteen year old brother
- now standing so proudly in the dock -
was to live or die. This friday afternoon,
she could see from the see of blurred faces
around her, which it was to be. She collapsed
in a fit of uncontrollable sobbing.
In a voice that stammered
and shook, a Jewish interpreter tired to
read out the verdict in Hebrew. He sat down,
overcome before he got to the end.
The prisoners were led
out. Ben Yosef stood up and shouted: "It
is good to die for the Jewish State on both
sides of the Jordan" and he went out
with his two fellow Betarim - the only cool,
detached and unaggravated people in the
After that came three
and a half weeks of unceasing attempts to
secure a reprieve. Appeals to the British
Government and the Palestine Administration
came from the Jewish national organizations,
from the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire,
from two Anglican Bishops, The Lancaster
Guardian, from the Polish Government, from
Chief Rabbi Herzog of Palestine, from British
Members of Parliament, newspaper editors,
churches, and synagogues,
The cries of Ben Yosef's
aged mother in Poland, who begged only that
her young son's life be spared until she
could reach Palestine to see him for the
last time, went unanswered. Jabotinsky himself
went to plead with Britain's Colonial Secretary,
Malcolm McDonald. In thousands, the petitions
came, but only in vain. Shein's sentence
was commuted, but Ben Yosef was to be sacrificed.
Ben Yosef was executed
in June, 1938. The entire Jewish world was
shocked by this injustice and was deeply
moved by the heroism of the young man in
the face of death.
A Betari Until the End
On the morning of Wednesday,
June 29, 1938, Shlomo Ben Yosef rose early.
It was the day after he had told his last
visitor "I will die like a man and
a Betari. I am proud to be the first to
be sacrificed for the Jewish People."
He kept his word. Calmly, without haste,
he washed, brushed his teeth, combed his
hair, and dressed in the white clothing
supplied to him.
The British refused to
give him his simple blue trimmed Betar uniform,
even though they promised him he would be
allowed to wear it. He told them he would
not go willingly if not in uniform. After
much deliberation, he agreed to go without
it as long as he was able to apologize to
his fellow Betarim for not having it on.
"Very well," he said, "I
will go. Let it not be said that a Jewish
soldier is afraid of death."
He took a final glance
at himself in a mirror, made sure that he
looked as smart and clean as if he were
in a Betar parade. He then walked out unflinchingly
toward the scaffold. On the way, he heard
the terrified shriek of an Arab murderer
about to be hanged, He smiled contemptuously,
and remarked to the escorting guards "It
appears that we will even have to teach
them how to die."
Shlomo Ben Yosef could
then be heard throughout the prison singing
Hatikvah. He climbed the scaffold fervently
singing Shir Betar - "Lamut o Lichbosh
et Hahar, to die or conquer the hill,"
- the first song he had learned in the far
away Plugah at Lutzk. On the gallows he
faced the executioner. Pride and defiance
shone in his eyes, as he spoke his last
"I die with the name
of Jabotinsky on my lips, sacrificing my
life in the hope that the Jewish nation
may learn the lesson that Havlaga, Self-restraint,
Autumn, 1938. In Warsaw
the 3rd World Conference of Betar is taking
place. Thousands have crowded into the Norvitz
Hall. Thousands of others have remained
in the streets waiting for the arrival of
A short while before the
opening of the Kinus, a common pride embrace
them all. Before your very eyes unfolds
an unforgettable scene - Jews of all sections
- orthodox, workers, and intelligentsia
all have come to greet our leader, and through
him the whole of our movement.
Here you meet Betarim
from the whole world and once again you
feel Lo Alman Israel, Israel is not orphaned.
Your thoughts are interpreted
by a mighty Tel Hai which bursts forth from
the street and penetrates every corner of
Rosh Betar has arrived.
And even today I see him
standing on that platform delivering the
A prophet is speaking.
He castigates, he teaches, and when from
his lips the words are heard "Whither
Jewish Youth?" then you fell that before
you stands a father with a big heart, a
heart that bleeds because of the fate of
his children and at the same time does not
fail to show the only true way.
And when his last words
were heard in that hall, a mighty Hatikvah
was in was the answer to the call of the
I leave the Norvitz Hall.
Here one meets dozens of friends and acquaintances.
Some are old participants in Betar schools
and conferences - are all touched by the
holiness of the occasion. Rosh Betar is
I enter the Jewish Academy
Hall in the suburb of Praga, Warsaw. Here
it is quiet and restful, but today is a
festive occasion. The sittings of the 3rd
World Kinus Betar are taking place here.
And, as in a motion picture, there pass
before you unforgettable scenes.
Joseph Glazman speaks.
He urges the Jewish youth to be prepared
for the great battle in Eretz Israel. As
yet, he did not know or feel know that he
himself was about to enter the pantheon
of the fighter-heroes from the Jewish Ghettoes.
He certainly did not realize that Shir Hapartisanim,
the Song of the Partisans, would be dedicated
And as one sees the picture
of Joseph Glazman standing so firm and straight,
you hear the words dedicated to him, "Do
not say this is the last road..."
A distance away, Ariah
Radal notes down his impressions. This Betari
from Kielco certainly did not know then
that in a few years he would be one of the
founders of the Betar underground and creator
of the first Jewish military organization
in the Warsaw Ghetto.
Further away, you see
alexander Rosenfeld running from the secretariat
of the Kinus, carrying with him a bundle
of bulletins, talking at the same time to
some of the most important delegates. Now
he is talking to Irma Halpern, asking questions
about the interview he had with American
journalist from Knickerbocker, concerning
the Jewish marine schools. With the pen
he served our information department with
devotion, but even with greater devotion
and even greater energy did he serve the
Betar underground in the Warsaw Ghetto.
Together with Dr. Stirkofsky, Frankel, and
others, that defended Jewish honor, they
wrote in golden letters that chapter of
history known as the Warsaw Revolt.
I remember the general
debate. The news of Eretz Israel is tragic.
The report is given by David Stern who has
just come from Eretz Israel, and the delegates
want to know "Where is the way out?"
The Yishuv serves the
golden calf of Havlaga, self restraint.
As against this, Betar has erased this shame
from Jewish history with its sacrifices
of Ben Yosef, and through the hundreds of
its members imprisoned in Akko, Bethlehem,
The leadership of the
Yishuv belongs to the so-called moderates.
From the platform, Aryeh Ben Eliezer puts
forward the pathetic question: "Rosh
Betar, How much longer shall we endure this
But this question cannot
become the main problem of the Kinus. Hitler's
annexation of Czechoslovakia places this
Betar Parliament before a tragic reality:
In Eretz Israel pogroms, Jewish Havlaga
and British provocations. In the Galuth,
Jabotinsky's evacuation plan was rejected.
A year later, the beginning of Hitler's
march and the start of the extermination
of European Jewry. And like the sword of
Damocles, the prophetic words of Rosh Betar
hung over our heads: "If you will not
liquidate the Galuth, the Galuth will liquidate
And like an answer to
this warning of Rosh Betar, Menachem Begin
suddenly appeared on the platform. The vast
multitude is electrified. Short, but sharp
words fall from his lips:
"We do not wish to
become subjects of ridicule and shame. Let
Jewish youth collect iron, let it create
the military potentialities and then we
shall ensure for the Jewish nation a better
We felt that we were living
in an historical moment. The words that
were heard everywhere were like words of
prophecy: "Begin is not only the hope
of our movement, Begin is the hope of our
It is early on Friday
morning. The last hours of the Kinus. A
tired Rosh Betar faces the world conference
and draws before us a picture of the pain
and suffering which faces our movement.
"Elokim Leyagon Be'hartanu,
G-d has created us for pain and suffering.
For the hangman's rope, and for prisons,
these will accompany your lives in the struggle
for the freedom of our land and nation.
But the day will come when the nation will
choose you to lead and the crown that will
truly be yours. And if today, the youth
in Eretz Israel have taken up arms, then
remember: This is the work of Betar. Therefore,
carry with dignity and pride your name:
In 1934, under the guidance
of Qatsin Hashilton Halpern, Betar established
a marine school in Civitavechia, Italy to
train young Jews how to man sea-going vessels.
Unlike the British and French, the Italian
government then allowed foreign students
to enter its naval schools. The Betar marine
section was an autonomous detachment, with
Hebrew as a subsidiary language, self-government
in its own barracks, kosher foods, and shabbat
services. Instruction was given to about
one hundred Jewish cadets by Italian officers,
under the supervision of Betar Mifakdim.
The Betar marine section
purchased its first ship and named her Sara
I. She was a beautiful four-master, originally
the yacht of an American Admiral, and the
largest sailing vessel in the Mediterranean.
The hull was painted blue and white, and
the hold rebuilt to accommodate sixty cadets
and the crew. She made training cruises
lasting from six months to a year, touching
in at ports of the Mediterranean, the Atlantic,
and the Pacific. During the winter of 1938,
which was the stormiest the Mediterranean
had seen for over half a century, the Sara
I, during a regular training voyage, rode
out thirty storms, four hundred squalls,
eleven waterspouts, four hurricanes, and
two typhoons. The behavior of the cadets
during this period when scores of ships
went down and hundreds of men drowned was
characterized in the marine press as "constituting
a chapter in the history of Jewish navigation
that future generations will be proud of."
At Riga, Latvia, Betar
opened another marine school. In 1936 Betar
chartered a sailing vessel, which was renamed
Theodore Herzel, for the training of able
bodied seamen. The Theodore Herzel made
voyages all along the Scandinavian coast.
In 1938 two more vessels were added in Civitavechia,
the Nekha, and Lea. The cadets from the
Betar marine section proved to be valuable
assets in another area of Betar activity
- Aliyah Bet.
Not only were Betarim
the first to stress the importance to Israel
of trained sailors, but they also led the
field in aeronautics.
Led by Eri Jabotinsky,
son of Rosh Betar, Betar became air minded
in the early 1930's. Under his direction,
a group of Betarim constructed the first
aircraft in Israel - a glider. On it, many
Jewish youth won their wings.
In the state of New Jersey,
on the east coast of the United States,
the outbreak of World War II saw the formation
of the Betar Jabotinsky Air School, where
scores of Jewish youth learned the art of
In south Africa, a Betar
formed a third Air School. At this point
it was certain that Betar was the leading
trainer of sailors and pilots for the soon
the be reborn Jewish State.
During Israel's fight
for independence, graduates from the various
air schools provided an invaluable service.
With their help, badly needed weapons were
flown in, all of which were put to immediate
use. While in the air, many pilots were
able to fend attacks from the ground, while
others were able to get a view of the battle
unavailable any way else.
Today, Betar still emphasizes
the increasing need of trained pilots to
the State of Israel, and continues to encourage
youth to take to the skies.
Aliyah - Immigration
Aliyah Bet - The second
major wave of immigration of Jews to British
administered Palestine without the consent
of the British government.
Bar Kochba - The leader
of the Jews fighting against Roman takeover
in the days of Massada.
British Mandate Palestine
- The area now consisting of Jordan and
Israel. The British government was given
the responsibility by the League of Nations,
the forerunner of the United Nations, to
establish the Jewish National Home. Over
75% of the land was taken away from the
Jews to create the Arab Palestinian State,
Eretz Israel - Originating
in the Torah, the name means Land of Israel.
Galut - The world outside
of Eretz Israel.
Hachshara - Military
Hashomer Hatzair -
The youth organization of the Jewish socialist
parties. Not only are they typified as being
anti Jewish religious practice, but anti-religion
Histadruth - The collective
of all Jewish socialist parties.
Jewish Agency - The
group recognized by the British as Representatives
of Jews in Palestine.
Kinus - A governing
convention of Betar that decides the future
of the movement. Today, a Kinus occurs every
two years in each country as well as another
for the World movement.
Maoz (Maozim Pl.) -
A Betar chapter.
Mapai - The socialist
party dominating Jewish policies in British
Mandated Palestine and Israeli politics
until Menachem Began became Prime Minister.
Mifaked (Mifakdim Pl.)
Mizrachi - The organization
of Sefardic Jewry.
New Zionist Organization
- The anti-socialist political organization.
Plugat Hakotel - Translated
as the Platoon of the Wall, this is the
name of the group of Betarim who protected
Jews as they went to pray at the Wailing
Wall before Israel was established.
Revisionist - The name
of the group that saw a new vision of the
future establishment of the State of Israel.
While the Zionist establishment was working
to establish the Jewish state based upon
socialist ideals, Jabotinsky wanted to see
a democracy and a free market economy. He
explained how we should not work toward
socialism. The only ism we should work for
is Zionism. (not to be confused with the
term 'Holocaust revisionist' that implies
a rewrite of history itself)
Torah - Jewish Bible.
Yishuv - The settlement
of Jews in Eretz Israel.